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EPIDEMIOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF YOUTH IN KAZAKHSTAN AND EAST KAZAKHSTAN REGION

Post date: 14-11-2014
Author(s): T.K. Rakhypbekov, M.V. Goremykina, N.E. Glushkova Semey State Medical University

Summary

The article presents the results of epidemiological indicators analysis of youth in the Republic of Kazakhstan.

 

Key words:youth, epidemiological indicators

 


Background. Young people can be defined as socio-demographic group that is allocated on the basis of population age characteristics, characteristics of the social situation and the socio-psychological characteristics [1]. However, national statistics and in government programs there are differences in the definition of the age group. According to the Law on the State Youth Policy of 7.07.2004, the "young people - are citizens of the Republic of Kazakhstan at the age of fourteen to twenty-nine years" [2] At this age period saw major social and demographic developments in the human life cycle: the completion of general education, choice and getting the profession, starting work, marriage, the birth of children. In the State Statistics of Kazakhstan since 2001, has changed the age limit for inclusion in the population of youth: before 2001 the age limit for inclusion in the youth was 16 - 29 years, and since 2001, 15-24, as recommended by the International Labour Organization and the definition adopted international Conference of Labour Statisticians [3]. 

Purpose of this study was carried out analysis of epidemiological indicators of the Republic of Kazakhstan youth.

Materials and methods.  He article contains materials the Statistics Agency of the Republic of Kazakhstan for the period from 1999 to 2012. Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics methods. The procedure for the statistical analysis performed using SPSS 20 for Windows (Semey State Medical University).

Results and discussion. According to the Statistics Agency of Kazakhstan on January 1, 2012 the number of young people aged 14 to 29 years was 4.3 million. In the structure of contemporary society age group of young people holds 26.9% of the total population of the country [4]. At the same time in the last decade up to 2008 there was a trend increase in the share of young people in the population. However, since the beginning of 2010 to 2012 the country has been a marked trend towards a reduction in the number of young people in general, and its share of the total population (Figure 1, 2).

Figure 1 – The number of people aged 14-29 лет in the Republic of Kazakhstan, 2008-2012.

Figure 2 - The proportion of the population aged 14-29 years

in the total population the Republic of Kazakhstan, 2008-2012

 

Describing the health of young people at the national level, according to the Agency of Statistics the Republic of Kazakhstan to note the changes in fertility. Interpretation of fertility expresses the level of reproductive health of young people and has an integral value in assessing the age group 15 to 19 years (AFR - adolescent fertility rate) [4].

Between 1999 and 2009, the birth rate in the republic and the EKR (East Kazakhstan Region) is on the rise in the age groups 20 - 24 and 25 - 29 years. So, in 2009, compared with 1999, the birth rate in the whole country rose by 22.84 in the group of 20 - 24 years of age and at 57.02 in the group of 25 - 29 years. In the EKR for the same period a similar trend can be noted. Birth rates in groups of 20 - 24 and 25 - 29 years have grown for 10 years at 5.17 and 46.27 respectively (Table 1). This situation reflects the stabilization of the socio-economic processes in the country by 2009 compared with 1999.

 

 

Table 1.

Birth rates in the Republic of Kazakhstan and EKR in the age groups 15 - 19, 20 - 24, 25 - 29 years, 1999 – 2009

Age

the Republic of Kazakhstan

EKR

1999

2009

1999

2009

15-19

33,83

31,04

23,19

27,08

20-24

133,3

156,14

110,53

115,7

25-29

100,01

157,03

77,76

124,03

 

 

The opposite situation is observed when assessing fertility rates in the age group 15 - 19 years. Factor in this group is of particular importance and is defined by the term "fertility rate among teenagers." AFR is one of the international indicators to improve the health of young people. The international community in addressing the challenges of universal access to goods and services of sexual and reproductive health has defined its official indicator. This indicator is also a measure of young peoples access to services and goods to sexual and reproductive health.

Describing the AFR for the period 2009 to 2011, it should be noted that according to EKR, as well as on the country, the rate is high, but in general it can be noted improvement. Thus, according to the data shown in Figure 3, AFR for the Republic of Kazakhstan has dropped compared with 2009 in 2010 to 2.85 and 1.64 in 2011. By EKR change this ratio is even more remarkable that apparently reflects the effectiveness of the Youth Health Centres (YHC) reproductive health of adolescents and young adults. Compared with 2009 AFR on EKR in 2011 decreased by 3.64 (Figure 3).

 

 

Figure 3 - The dynamics of adolescent fertility rate (AFR) in the Republic of Kazakhstan and EKR, 2009-2011

 

 

Changes in the direction of reducing the AFR, of course, are the characteristic of positive changes in the state of reproductive health of young people of the Republic of Kazakhstan. However, one should take into account the fact that the most favorable is less than 10 AFR adopted the equivalent of being a relative measure of the developed countries of Europe, such as Germany, France, Italy.

When analyzing the data of the annual report of the Agency on Statistics of the Republic of Kazakhstan, in addition to indicators of the youth population, fertility and AFR, we have analyzed the mortality in this age group (14 - 29 years).

According to the 2011 mortality rate among the general population in our country has reached the numbers 9.95 per 1,000 people, including young people, the figure is 1.44 per 1,000.

The distribution of causes of death among young people in 2009-2011. 100 thousand people demonstrated in Figure 4.

Somewhat declining, are all major causes of death, except for class neoplasms. At the same time, it should be noted that in all the years the dominant position is quantified mortality from accidents, poisonings and injuries (χ2 = 18,21; р < 0,01).

The high mortality rate in the class of accidents, poisonings and injuries can be attributed to allocation of the Republic of Kazakhstan to the region with a "super-high" rates of suicidal activity of the population (more than 30 per 100,000 population per year), while in the EKR’s rate the highest in the country (50, 4), as well as a high level of road accidents.

The high incidence of suicidal activity, while characterizing the distribution of risk behaviors among young people identified in the justification of the "Measures for the provision of medical and social and psychological support to prevent and reduce suicide among adolescents and young people" Republican Scientific and Practical Center for Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Toxicology, Department of Health the Republic of Kazakhstan. One of the main activities of the center of Psychiatry, aimed at addressing the problem of suicide, is to improve access to mental health, medical and psychological care and its approximation to the population, in the structure of the organization of primary health care (PHC), student health centers, classrooms, social and psychological assistance (therapists, clinical psychologists). Social and psychological counseling today, there is a student in clinics and in the schools. However, data on the analysis of the availability of this kind of assistance to young people, as well as objective indicators of its reception in scientific literature we found.

 

Figure 4 - Trends in mortality among the population aged 14-29 years by main causes, 2009 – 2011

 

 

Conclusion. Thus, the analysis of some demographic indicators among young people in the Republic of Kazakhstan and, in particular, in the EKR defense showed the feasibility of improving existing measures to protect the health of young people.

 

References:

1. Программа "Қазақстан жастары - 2009", 2009 .

2. Сергеев Р.В. Молодежь и студенчество как социальные группы и объект социологического анализа // Вестник Адыгейского государственного университета. Серия 1: Регионоведение: философия, история, социология, юриспруденция, политология, культурология. 2010.

3. Сеть молодежных неправительственных организаций. Отчет о ситуации в сфере молодежной политики на основе проекта «Анализ и мониторинг молодежной политики в Республике Казахстан за период 2004-2008 годы», 2009.

4. Амирханова М.М., Танирбергенов С.Т. Кластерное обследование по многим показателям в Республике Казахстан 2010-2011 г.г. Мониторинг положения детей и женщин. Астана: 2012.


 

Тұжырым

ЖАСТАРДЫҢ ЭПИДЕМИОЛОГИЯЛЫҚ КӨРСЕТКІШТЕРІ ҚАЗАҚСТАН РЕСПУБЛИКАСЫНДА

Т.К.Рахыпбеков, М.В.Горемыкина, Н.Е.Глушкова

Семей қаласыныңМемлекеттiк медицина университетi

Мақалада жастардың эпидемиологиялық көрсеткішінің анализының нәтижелері Қазақстан Республикасында келтіреді.

 

Негізгі сөздер: жастар, эпидемиологиялық көрсеткіштер.

 

Резюме

ЭПИДЕМИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ ПОКАЗАТЕЛИ МОЛОДЕЖИ В РЕСПУБЛИКЕ КАЗАХСТАН

Т.К. Рахыпбеков, М.В. Горемыкина, Н.Е. Глушкова

Государственный медицинский университет города Семей

В статье приводятся результаты анализа эпидемиологических показателей молодежи в Республике Казахстан.

 

Ключевые слова: молодежь, эпидемиологические показатели.

 

год: 2013 выпуск №3